来源 | NCFP
20世纪初，老洛克菲勒在《给予的艰难艺术》(the Difficult Art of Giving)一书中写道:“我们必须时刻记住，促进人类进步的资金并不充裕，而且永远也不够。因此，应尽可能发挥聪明才智让捐赠发挥最大效用，这一点至关重要!”
约翰·戴维森·洛克菲勒(John Davison Rockefeller, 通常被称为老洛克菲勒
大卫·洛克菲勒基金(David Rockefeller Fund)是洛克菲勒众多捐赠工具之一，由老洛克菲勒的孙子和他的妻子佩吉创立。最新发布的《用爱和感激引领家族：大卫·洛克菲勒基金三十周年》(Leading with Love and Gratitude: The David Rockefeller Fund at 30)一书中概述了其逐步发展的历史，它展示了慈善事业应该不断磨练其实践，对外界敏感，在家族集体做出贡献的同时，应对社区不断变化的需求。
37个家庭成员呼吁改革由他们自己的家庭成员纳尔逊·洛克菲勒颁布的纽约法律。《纽约时报》(New York Times)发表了一篇标题恰当的文章，名为《洛克菲勒家族说，修正洛克菲勒药品法》(Fix The Rockefeller Drug Laws, Rockefellers Say)。
该家族对其财富来源的清算仍在继续。最引人注目的是，2016年，前董事会主席、大卫·洛克菲勒的外孙大卫·凯泽(David Kaiser)在洛克菲勒家族基金的帮助下接管了埃克森美孚石油(Exxon Mobil)。随后，大卫·洛克菲勒基金会追随洛克菲勒兄弟基金会的脚步，剥离了化石燃料领域的业务。
凯泽于2020年7月去世，他指责公司误导气候研究，批评家族财富的来源，而且利用家族的名声和人际关系网络来做这些。凯泽也是美国刑事司法体系改革的坚定拥护者，并担任“国际公正拘留”(Just Detention International)主席，致力于结束各种拘留形式的虐待。
随着慈善事业的发展和新的声音出现，承担风险成为支撑该基金实践和议题领域的核心价值。在培养了第五代人并允许他们为基金的赠款重点领域捐款之后，刑事司法成为了优先事项——在当时是一个非常进步的问题领域。该基金进一步支持刑事司法，为曾遭受不公正监禁的归国公民设立了基金会奖学金，并建立了金丝雀影响力基金(Canary Impact Fund, CIF)。
The Evolution of Family Philanthropy: The David Rockefeller Fund
Maggie McGoldrick, Family Philanthropy
August, 4th, 2020
The name Rockefeller often conjures up images of wealth and influence. The founders of Standard Oil and magnates of the banking industry, the family is known worldwide for generations of success in business and politics. However, since 1855 when John D. Rockefeller, Sr. gave his first philanthropic gift, the family has harnessed its name for a far greater legacy—social impact.
In the early 1900s, in what is now known as The Difficult Art of Giving, Rockefeller wrote, “We must always remember that there is not enough money for the work of human uplift and that there never can be. How vitally important it is, therefore, that the expenditure should go as far as possible and be used with the greatest intelligence!” Rockefeller recognized that effective philanthropy goes beyond merely giving away capital and requires a thoughtful and intentional strategy—an understanding that continues to guide his descendants.
Among the many Rockefeller giving vehicles is the David Rockefeller Fund, started by the grandson of John D. Rockefeller, Sr., and his wife Peggy. Thirty years since its founding, the robust history of the DR Fund, outlined in Leading with Love and Gratitude: The David Rockefeller Fund at 30 (currently available only to Friends of the Family), exemplifies the way philanthropy can hone its practices, be nimble, and respond to the changing needs of its communities—all while joining the family in a collective effort.
In many ways, the journey of the Rockefellers mimics the evolution of modern philanthropy and illuminates what’s possible for families everywhere.
Adjusting to a Changing World
Philanthropy is an ever-evolving effort—as the world and family shifts, so too must a family’s philanthropy. This nimbleness and ability to adapt is a hallmark of the Rockefeller family. As Marnie Pillsbury, former Executive Director of the DR Fund shares of David Rockefeller’s philanthropy, “He always had an open mind to new ideas and novel approaches—adjusting to a changing world.” While change is not always easy, successful evolution stems from a commitment to shared values. As described by Bethany Wall in Leading with Love and Gratitude:
“People and families evolve over time, with inevitable growth, change and struggle. New paths are forged, others redirected; old paths are revisited and broadened. Long-standing traditions are honored, and new traditions established. The story of the DR Fund is much the same—one of evolution. Born of the practical and the possible, this family foundation—like the family itself—has evolved into a community of stewards and new donors that looks distinctly different from its earliest expression, yet is unmistakably tied to the values lived and practiced by founders David and Peggy: gratitude, connection, love and collaboration.”
The DR Fund’s history reflects the fact that change is inevitable and necessary, but must be rooted in the values and legacy of the family. The family’s recognition of this positions them for long-term success, encouraging them to remain flexible and responsive to grantee communities as well as to the family’s collective consciousness.
Defining values is a critical north star for any philanthropic family. Values should continually be turned to for guidance and challenged with changes in the world. In 2010, the fifth generation was brought on to the DR Fund’s board. With the next-gen came a distinct set of guiding principles, borne out of the Rockefeller family’s rich history and articulated with a direction that reflects the future. Values were consistently reflected upon and again revisited in 2015. Current Executive Director Lukas Haynes notes that these values grew and evolved out of a deep respect for the past: “I thought it might be useful [at a family board retreat] to try and root a new vision and mission statement in a conversation with historical perspective. Rather than start a conversation about values from scratch, it was very constructive to have three generations of the family hear about, and discuss, the historical continuities. I think it also gave the fifth-generation trustees more confidence in naming those values which felt most resonant for their generation and the world’s present challenges.”
Family Legacy & Flexibility
Two core strengths and guiding principles of the DR Fund are specific to its being a family effort. First the family leans on the legacy of its founders and their goals. Second, board and staff are able to react quickly and innovatively thanks to the organization’s structure. David Rockefeller also embodied these values, granting leeway to his children and grandchildren as they navigated the sector and adopting fresh ideas. As former independent board member Stephen Heintz says, “As he got older, David began to see that, while his children and grandchildren were the physical embodiment of his genes and his wife’s genes, the work of the Fund would be the philanthropic embodiment.” The Fund’s ability to react not only to changing times, but to changing family involvement while maintaining a respect for its legacy and founders epitomizes a true family philanthropy.
Self-Examination & Leverage
Throughout its 30-year history, the DR Fund has intentionally reflected on its past and used its weighty name to call attention to issues that have arisen out of self-examination. Rockefeller is arguably the single most recognizable American name, one that is both criticized and lauded. According to Rockefeller Philanthropy Advisors’ timeline of the family, the self-reflection and self-awareness of the family and its wealth was clear even from the beginning of the Rockefeller Foundation:
“The Rockefeller Foundation was not met with tremendous popular acclaim at the time. In fact, it was met with the opposite— tremendous suspicion. What are the Rockefellers up to now? This led JDR and Junior to understand that they had to operate the foundation in such a way that it would gain not only the grudging acceptance but also the trust of the American people.”
The Rockefeller name comes with a deep responsibility and the Fund is not shy about criticizing the origins of its own wealth and the actions of the family. On the other hand, the Fund is quite aware that its name and networks can be leveraged to draw support for particular issues. In the early days, grantees were encouraged to use the Rockefeller name and imprimatur to leverage other support. By 2005, however, the family was actively using its name to criticize its own history and change the trajectory of issues its family helped to create. Thirty-seven family members called for reform to New York laws—laws enacted by their own family member, Nelson Rockefeller. The New York Times covered the story in an aptly named article, “Fix the Rockefeller Drug Laws, Rockefellers Say.”
The family’s reckoning with its wealth source continues. Most notably, in 2016, when former board chair, David Kaiser, a grandson of David Rockefeller, took on Exxon Mobil with the help of the Rockefeller Family Fund and then the DR Fund followed in the footsteps of the Rockefeller Brothers Fund to divest from fossil fuels. Kaiser, who died in July 2020, called out the company for its misleading climate research, criticizing the source of the family’s wealth and used the family name and network to do so. Kaiser was also a stalwart champion for transforming the US criminal justice system and chaired Just Detention International, committed to ending sexual abuse in all forms of detention.
Risk Taking & Respect
Despite being led by a family often considered to epitomize traditional family philanthropy, the DR Fund is quite untraditional with its grantmaking. In the early years of the Fund, the grants were largely place-based. Currently, the Fund leverages its name to call attention to and fund traditionally underfunded issues.
As the philanthropy grew and new voices were brought to the table, taking risks became a core value that underpinned the practices and issue areas of the Fund. After bringing on the fifth generation and allowing them to contribute to the grantmaking focus areas of the Fund, criminal justice became a priority—a very progressive issue area at the time. The Fund took its support of criminal justice a step further by creating a foundation fellowship for returning citizens who were formerly incarcerated and then seeding the Canary Impact Fund (CIF). CIF is “a grantmaking body entirely comprised of and directed by those with personal knowledge of the criminal justice system” and provides an innovative model of participatory grantmaking for other grantmakers. The formation of CIF showcases “a move away from top-down models of philanthropy and toward the kinds of partnerships that build power among disenfranchised communities rather than, however compassionately, acting for them.”
The participatory grantmaking model of CIF was and remains a truly progressive approach. However, both principles were clearly modeled by David Rockefeller himself, who always respected his grandchildren and their bold ideas, “He listened to the conversations, offered perspective— always gently—and watched his grandchildren mature into strategic philanthropic thinkers,” Wall writes in Leading with Love. In many ways, David modeled the approach his descendants now hold, taking risks out of respect for those you seek to serve.
What Can Families Learn?
Despite the renown of the Rockefeller name, the DR Fund is relatively modest in size for a family foundation, with $68 million in assets as of January 2020 and a board commitment to drive impact with all of its endowment and other assets. The Fund’s board and staff have consistently followed a path that embraces the modernity of philanthropy—taking risks, listening to the field, and supporting issues and advocacy efforts that are often underfunded. In addition to this success, the Fund provides a vehicle for ongoing connection within the family. When the fourth generation felt like participation was its duty, the fifth generation instilled new life and vigor to the Fund’s work by connecting cousins and allowing David to learn about his grandchildren’s passions. Every family—even the Rockefellers—must find ways to shape a philanthropic effort that reflects the family’s values, builds a family connection, and challenges the status quo. If they can do it, so can you!