来源 | NCFP

"洛克菲勒这个名字常常让人联想到财富和影响力。作为标准石油公司(Standard Oil)的创始人和银行业巨头,这个家族因几代人在商业和政治上的成功而闻名于世。然而,自1855年约翰·戴维森·洛克菲勒一世(通常被称为老洛克菲勒)捐出他的第一份慈善礼物以来,洛克菲勒家族就利用这个名字产生了更大的社会影响力。"

 

20世纪初,老洛克菲勒在《给予的艰难艺术》(the Difficult Art of Giving)一书中写道:“我们必须时刻记住,促进人类进步的资金并不充裕,而且永远也不够。因此,应尽可能发挥聪明才智让捐赠发挥最大效用,这一点至关重要!”

老洛克菲勒认识到,有效的慈善事业不仅仅是捐赠资金,还需要慎重考虑和目标导向的策略——这种理解一直在指引着他的子孙后代。 

约翰·戴维森·洛克菲勒(John Davison Rockefeller, 通常被称为老洛克菲勒

大卫·洛克菲勒基金(David Rockefeller Fund)是洛克菲勒众多捐赠工具之一,由老洛克菲勒的孙子和他的妻子佩吉创立。最新发布的《用爱和感激引领家族:大卫·洛克菲勒基金三十周年》(Leading with Love and Gratitude: The David Rockefeller Fund at 30)一书中概述了其逐步发展的历史,它展示了慈善事业应该不断磨练其实践,对外界敏感,在家族集体做出贡献的同时,应对社区不断变化的需求。

在很多方面,洛克菲勒家族的历程都蕴含着现代慈善事业的发展,并为世界各地的家族传承提供了借鉴。


适应不断变化的世界

慈善事业是一项不断发展的事业——随着外部世界和家族自身的变化,家族慈善事业也必须随之变化。这种敏捷性和适应能力是洛克菲勒家族的特点。

正如大卫·洛克菲勒慈善基金的前执行董事马尼·皮尔斯伯里所说,“他总是对新思想和新方法持开放态度,以适应不断变化的世界。”尽管改变并不总是那么容易,但成功的进化源于对共同价值观的承诺。正如《用爱和感激引领家族》书中所描述的:

“随着时间的推移,家族和成员不断演变,成长、改变和纷争是不可避免的。新路在开辟,新方向被指出;老路被重新回顾并拓宽。悠久的传统需要得到尊重,新的传统也会得以建立。

大卫·洛克菲勒基金的故事大致相同——一个关于进化的故事。脱胎于实践和现实可能性, 这一家族基金就像家族本身一样,已经演变成一个管理者和新捐赠者的社区,看起来与最初的表达方式截然不同,但毫无疑问与创始人大卫和佩吉所生活和实践的价值观一致:感恩、连接、爱和合作。”

大卫·洛克菲勒基金的历史反映了这样一个事实,即改变是不可避免和必要的,但必须植根于家族的价值观和传承。家族在这一点达成共识,使得事业取得长期的成功;鼓励他们保持敏感,对受资助社区以及家族的集体认知作出反应。


指导原则

对任何一个慈善家族来说,定义价值观都是那颗至关重要的北极星。我们应该不断地以价值观为指导,以世界的变化为挑战。

2010年,第五代人加入了大卫·洛克菲勒基金的董事会。随着下一代的到来,必须发展出一套独特的指导原则,这些原则来自洛克菲勒家族丰富的历史,并反映着未来的发展方向。

价值观在2015年不断被反思和重新审视。现任执行董事卢卡斯·海恩斯指出,这些价值观的成长和演变源于对过去的深刻尊重:“在家族董事会的一次聚会上, 我提出——应该从历史的角度展开对话,确立新的愿景和使命声明。与其从头开始一场价值观的对话,不如让家族的三代人相互倾听并讨论历史的连续性,这是非常有建设性的。这也让第五代受托人更有信心确立那些能引起他们共鸣并呼应当今世界挑战的价值观。”

1. 尊重传统、保持灵活

大卫·洛克菲勒基金的两个核心优势和指导原则是家族努力的具体体现。

首先,这个家族依赖于创始人的传承和他们的目标;其次,由于组织的架构设计,董事会和员工能够顺应发展快速和创新地对社会问题做出反应。

大卫·洛克菲勒也体现了这些价值观,给他的子孙后代留有空间,让他们在这个行业中航行,并采纳新的想法。正如前独立董事斯蒂芬·海因茨所说:“随着大卫年龄的增长,他开始意识到,他的孩子和孙子是他和妻子基因的物理延伸,而基金会的工作则是慈善理念的具体化身。”

该基金不仅能够应对时代的变化,而且能够应对不断变化的家族关系,同时保持对其传承和创始人的尊重,这是真正的家族慈善事业的体现。

2. 自我反省和杠杆力量

在其30年的历史中,大卫·洛克菲勒基金有意识地反思自己的过去,并以其沉甸甸的声望来呼吁人们关注那些因自我反省而产生的问题。

洛克菲勒可以说是最知名的美国名字,一个既有批评又有赞扬的名字。根据洛克菲勒慈善顾问机构的家族时间表,从洛克菲勒基金会成立之初,家族及其财富的自我反省和自我意识就显而易见:

“当年,洛克菲勒基金会并没有得到广泛的赞誉。事实上,它遭遇了相反的处境——极大的怀疑。洛克菲勒家族最近在干什么?这让老洛克菲勒和家族后代明白,他们必须以一种特定的方式来运作基金会,这种方式不仅要得到接受,还要得到民众的信任。”

洛克菲勒这个名字承载着沉重的责任,该基金也毫不羞于批评自己的财富来源和家族行为。另一方面,基金组织很清楚,它的名称和人际关系网络可以用来吸引对特定问题的资助。

在早期,受赠方被鼓励使用洛克菲勒的名字和授权来谋求其他的支持。然而,到了2005年,这个家族开始主动地利用自己的名字来批评自己的历史,并改变了其家族导致问题的轨迹。

37个家庭成员呼吁改革由他们自己的家庭成员纳尔逊·洛克菲勒颁布的纽约法律。《纽约时报》(New York Times)发表了一篇标题恰当的文章,名为《洛克菲勒家族说,修正洛克菲勒药品法》(Fix The Rockefeller Drug Laws, Rockefellers Say)。

该家族对其财富来源的清算仍在继续。最引人注目的是,2016年,前董事会主席、大卫·洛克菲勒的外孙大卫·凯泽(David Kaiser)在洛克菲勒家族基金的帮助下接管了埃克森美孚石油(Exxon Mobil)。随后,大卫·洛克菲勒基金会追随洛克菲勒兄弟基金会的脚步,剥离了化石燃料领域的业务。

凯泽于2020年7月去世,他指责公司误导气候研究,批评家族财富的来源,而且利用家族的名声和人际关系网络来做这些。凯泽也是美国刑事司法体系改革的坚定拥护者,并担任“国际公正拘留”(Just Detention International)主席,致力于结束各种拘留形式的虐待。

3. 承担风险和尊重他人

尽管领导大卫·洛克菲勒基金的家族通常被认为是传统家族慈善事业的缩影,但在捐款方面,该基金是相当反传统的。在该基金成立的最初几年,赠款主要是基于地理范畴的。目前,该基金利用其名称来唤起人们对传统上资金不足的问题的关注和资助。 

随着慈善事业的发展和新的声音出现,承担风险成为支撑该基金实践和议题领域的核心价值。在培养了第五代人并允许他们为基金的赠款重点领域捐款之后,刑事司法成为了优先事项——在当时是一个非常进步的问题领域。该基金进一步支持刑事司法,为曾遭受不公正监禁的归国公民设立了基金会奖学金,并建立了金丝雀影响力基金(Canary Impact Fund, CIF)。

然而,这些原则都是由大卫·洛克菲勒本人明确地塑造的,他总是尊重他的孙辈和他们大胆的想法,“他倾听他们的谈话,提供观点——总是温和地——并看着他的孙辈成长为具有战略意义的慈善思想家,”在很多方面,大卫为他的子孙提供了现在所采用方法的典范,冒着风险去尊重那些你想要服务的人。


慈善家族可以学到什么

尽管洛克菲勒家族名声显赫,但作为一个家族基金,大卫·洛克菲勒基金的规模相对较小。截至2020年1月,该基金的资产为6800万美元,董事会承诺将用所有捐赠和其他资产推动影响力。

基金的董事会和工作人员一贯遵循的道路是,倡导慈善事业的现代化——承担风险、倾听实地情况、支持日常性资金不足的问题和宣传工作。

除了这一成功之外,该基金还为家族内部的持续联系提供了工具。当第四代人觉得参与是他们的责任时,第五代人给基金会的工作注入了新的生命和活力,他们把表兄弟联系起来,让大卫了解他的孙子们的激情所在。

每个家族——甚至是洛克菲勒家族——都必须找到办法来塑造一项能反映家族价值观的慈善事业,建立成员联系,并挑战现状。如果他们能做到,其他人也能!


The Evolution of Family Philanthropy: The David Rockefeller Fund

Maggie McGoldrick, Family Philanthropy

August, 4th, 2020

The name Rockefeller often conjures up images of wealth and influence. The founders of Standard Oil and magnates of the banking industry, the family is known worldwide for generations of success in business and politics. However, since 1855 when John D. Rockefeller, Sr. gave his first philanthropic gift, the family has harnessed its name for a far greater legacy—social impact.

In the early 1900s, in what is now known as The Difficult Art of Giving, Rockefeller wrote, “We must always remember that there is not enough money for the work of human uplift and that there never can be. How vitally important it is, therefore, that the expenditure should go as far as possible and be used with the greatest intelligence!” Rockefeller recognized that effective philanthropy goes beyond merely giving away capital and requires a thoughtful and intentional strategy—an understanding that continues to guide his descendants. 

Among the many Rockefeller giving vehicles is the David Rockefeller Fund, started by the grandson of John D. Rockefeller, Sr., and his wife Peggy. Thirty years since its founding, the robust history of the DR Fund, outlined in Leading with Love and Gratitude: The David Rockefeller Fund at 30 (currently available only to Friends of the Family), exemplifies the way philanthropy can hone its practices, be nimble, and respond to the changing needs of its communities—all while joining the family in a collective effort.

In many ways, the journey of the Rockefellers mimics the evolution of modern philanthropy and illuminates what’s possible for families everywhere.

Adjusting to a Changing World

Philanthropy is an ever-evolving effort—as the world and family shifts, so too must a family’s philanthropy. This nimbleness and ability to adapt is a hallmark of the Rockefeller family. As Marnie Pillsbury, former Executive Director of the DR Fund shares of David Rockefeller’s philanthropy, “He always had an open mind to new ideas and novel approaches—adjusting to a changing world.” While change is not always easy, successful evolution stems from a commitment to shared values. As described by Bethany Wall in Leading with Love and Gratitude:

“People and families evolve over time, with inevitable growth, change and struggle. New paths are forged, others redirected; old paths are revisited and broadened. Long-standing traditions are honored, and new traditions established. The story of the DR Fund is much the same—one of evolution. Born of the practical and the possible, this family foundation—like the family itself—has evolved into a community of stewards and new donors that looks distinctly different from its earliest expression, yet is unmistakably tied to the values lived and practiced by founders David and Peggy: gratitude, connection, love and collaboration.”

The DR Fund’s history reflects the fact that change is inevitable and necessary, but must be rooted in the values and legacy of the family. The family’s recognition of this positions them for long-term success, encouraging them to remain flexible and responsive to grantee communities as well as to the family’s collective consciousness.

Guiding Principles

Defining values is a critical north star for any philanthropic family. Values should continually be turned to for guidance and challenged with changes in the world. In 2010, the fifth generation was brought on to the DR Fund’s board. With the next-gen came a distinct set of guiding principles, borne out of the Rockefeller family’s rich history and articulated with a direction that reflects the future. Values were consistently reflected upon and again revisited in 2015. Current Executive Director Lukas Haynes notes that these values grew and evolved out of a deep respect for the past: “I thought it might be useful [at a family board retreat] to try and root a new vision and mission statement in a conversation with historical perspective. Rather than start a conversation about values from scratch, it was very constructive to have three generations of the family hear about, and discuss, the historical continuities. I think it also gave the fifth-generation trustees more confidence in naming those values which felt most resonant for their generation and the world’s present challenges.”

Family Legacy & Flexibility

Two core strengths and guiding principles of the DR Fund are specific to its being a family effort. First the family leans on the legacy of its founders and their goals. Second, board and staff are able to react quickly and innovatively thanks to the organization’s structure. David Rockefeller also embodied these values, granting leeway to his children and grandchildren as they navigated the sector and adopting fresh ideas. As former independent board member Stephen Heintz says, “As he got older, David began to see that, while his children and grandchildren were the physical embodiment of his genes and his wife’s genes, the work of the Fund would be the philanthropic embodiment.” The Fund’s ability to react not only to changing times, but to changing family involvement while maintaining a respect for its legacy and founders epitomizes a true family philanthropy.

Self-Examination & Leverage

Throughout its 30-year history, the DR Fund has intentionally reflected on its past and used its weighty name to call attention to issues that have arisen out of self-examination. Rockefeller is arguably the single most recognizable American name, one that is both criticized and lauded. According to Rockefeller Philanthropy Advisors’ timeline of the family, the self-reflection and self-awareness of the family and its wealth was clear even from the beginning of the Rockefeller Foundation:

“The Rockefeller Foundation was not met with tremendous popular acclaim at the time. In fact, it was met with the opposite— tremendous suspicion. What are the Rockefellers up to now? This led JDR and Junior to understand that they had to operate the foundation in such a way that it would gain not only the grudging acceptance but also the trust of the American people.”

The Rockefeller name comes with a deep responsibility and the Fund is not shy about criticizing the origins of its own wealth and the actions of the family. On the other hand, the Fund is quite aware that its name and networks can be leveraged to draw support for particular issues.  In the early days, grantees were encouraged to use the Rockefeller name and imprimatur to leverage other support. By 2005, however, the family was actively using its name to criticize its own history and change the trajectory of issues its family helped to create. Thirty-seven family members called for reform to New York laws—laws enacted by their own family member, Nelson Rockefeller. The New York Times covered the story in an aptly named article, “Fix the Rockefeller Drug Laws, Rockefellers Say.” 

The family’s reckoning with its wealth source continues. Most notably, in 2016, when former board chair, David Kaiser, a grandson of David Rockefeller, took on Exxon Mobil with the help of the Rockefeller Family Fund and then the DR Fund followed in the footsteps of the Rockefeller Brothers Fund to divest from fossil fuels. Kaiser, who died in July 2020, called out the company for its misleading climate research, criticizing the source of the family’s wealth and used the family name and network to do so. Kaiser was also a stalwart champion for transforming the US criminal justice system and chaired Just Detention International, committed to ending sexual abuse in all forms of detention.

Risk Taking & Respect

Despite being led by a family often considered to epitomize traditional family philanthropy, the DR Fund is quite untraditional with its grantmaking. In the early years of the Fund, the grants were largely place-based. Currently, the Fund leverages its name to call attention to and fund traditionally underfunded issues.

As the philanthropy grew and new voices were brought to the table, taking risks became a core value that underpinned the practices and issue areas of the Fund. After bringing on the fifth generation and allowing them to contribute to the grantmaking focus areas of the Fund, criminal justice became a priority—a very progressive issue area at the time. The Fund took its support of criminal justice a step further by creating a foundation fellowship for returning citizens who were formerly incarcerated and then seeding the Canary Impact Fund (CIF). CIF is “a grantmaking body entirely comprised of and directed by those with personal knowledge of the criminal justice system” and provides an innovative model of participatory grantmaking for other grantmakers. The formation of CIF showcases “a move away from top-down models of philanthropy and toward the kinds of partnerships that build power among disenfranchised communities rather than, however compassionately, acting for them.”

The participatory grantmaking model of CIF was and remains a truly progressive approach. However, both principles were clearly modeled by David Rockefeller himself, who always respected his grandchildren and their bold ideas, “He listened to the conversations, offered perspective— always gently—and watched his grandchildren mature into strategic philanthropic thinkers,” Wall writes in Leading with Love. In many ways, David modeled the approach his descendants now hold, taking risks out of respect for those you seek to serve.

What Can Families Learn?

Despite the renown of the Rockefeller name, the DR Fund is relatively modest in size for a family foundation, with $68 million in assets as of January 2020 and a board commitment to drive impact with all of its endowment and other assets. The Fund’s board and staff have consistently followed a path that embraces the modernity of philanthropy—taking risks, listening to the field, and supporting issues and advocacy efforts that are often underfunded. In addition to this success, the Fund provides a vehicle for ongoing connection within the family. When the fourth generation felt like participation was its duty, the fifth generation instilled new life and vigor to the Fund’s work by connecting cousins and allowing David to learn about his grandchildren’s passions. Every family—even the Rockefellers—must find ways to shape a philanthropic effort that reflects the family’s values, builds a family connection, and challenges the status quo. If they can do it, so can you!

 

 

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本文源自 深圳国际公益学院

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